The situation in and around Syria is becoming increasingly dramatic, and the UN estimates the number of casualties at over 60,000. Information on the warring parties’ military successes is highly unreliable. The “frontline” is becoming increasingly blurred, as clashes sweep through Syrian cities, including the capital Damascus. The conflict is also becoming increasingly internationalized. These considerations do accentuate the relevance of Moscow’s stance on the Syrian conflict. To what extent does it meet Russia’s key long-term interests in Syria and the Middle East as a whole? Is Russia ready for possible U-turns up to and including the fall of Assad’s regime?