The article analyzes the provisions of the new Constitution of Egypt, and its perception by the liberal opposition. The author argues that, despite all the flaws and controversial aspects of the Constitution, Egypt will follow the path of moderate Islamism and its relations with Israel, the U.S., the EU and Russia are unlikely to undergo substantial changes.
Following the revolution that ousted President Hosni Mubarak in February 2011, the Islamists found themselves at the forefront of the political movement and managed to win the parliamentary elections in March 2012. The Freedom and Justice Party, the political arm of the Muslim Brotherhood movement, won the largest number of seats (42 percent). Then came the al-Nour Party (Party of Light), representing the Salafi movement. The association of liberal democratic and leftist parties received fewer seats . In June 2012, the Muslim Brotherhood candidate Mohamed Morsi won Egypt’s tough presidential runoff against secular movement candidate Ahmed Shafik, the last prime minister under deposed leader Hosni Mubarak.
Early on in his time in office, Morsi forced the leaders of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces to resign. It had been headed by Field Marshal Mohamad Hussein Tantawi, de facto head of state from February 2011 to June 2012.